CURRENT ISSUE - Volume 5 Issue 6 (2024)


  • Propagation Techniques in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

  • Ashok Kumar G, Savitha B.K, Bini Sundar S.T, Prabhu M,

    OPEN ACCESS | Published on : 30-Jun-2024 | Pages : 0873-0876

    The cucumber is indigenous to India. It is commonly cultivated by seeds. The prices of hybrid cucumber seeds were about thrice compared to seeds of open pollinated varieties.  The cucumber hybrids are developed by hybridizing gynoecious lines with monoecious lines. After removal of anthers in the female lines, pollination was carried out by bees. Two to three bee hives per acre are installed for effective pollination and fruit set. The ratio between female and male lines in the field should be 3:1. Well matured fruits at 65 days after anthesis are separated from the plant for extraction of seeds. Minimum isolation distance of 1000m from other cucurbits is needed for certified seeds and 1500m for foundation seeds. Haploids were produced by growing of anthers in the growing media added with 2,4, D and BA at different combinations through somatic embryogenesis.

  • Development of Inbred Lines for Hybrids Development in Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria M.) through Doubled Haploid Technique

  • Prabhu M, Dhandapani M, Anbukkarasi V, Pugalendhi L,

    OPEN ACCESS | Published on : 30-Jun-2024 | Pages : 0877-0880

    Monoecious and andromonecious nature in bottle gourd leads to higher levels of cross pollination. This mechanism favours wide diversity. Several varieties were evolved through selection from the native germplasm in bottle gourd. However, development of hybrids with high yield by using heterosis breeding is need of the hour. Conventional crop improvement strategies take longer time and require huge man power for the development of inbreds used as parents. Tissue culture techniques are being followed in vegetables to minimize the time taken for the development of inbred. Doubled haploids are developed through regeneration of haploid plants by using tissue culture protocols. Subsequently, these haploid plants are developed into homozygous conditions by doubling of chromosomes. It is time saving process and minimizes the time and resources required for raising many generations. Several studies have been conducted in cucumber, squash and muskmelon. However, few regeneration protocols are available in bottle by using cotyledons as explant. So, there is an immediate need for standardization of haploid development protocols in bottle gourd as similar to other Cucumis species.

  • Propagation Techniques in Sponge Gourd

  • Thamaraiselvi S.P, Padmadevi K, Prabhu M, Preethi T.L,

    OPEN ACCESS | Published on : 30-Jun-2024 | Pages : 0881-0883

    The sponge gourd is native to Indian sub-continent. The fruits of sponge gourd are having smooth and black seeds. It is commercially propagated by seeds. Inadequate germination of seeds is one of the important constraints in sponge gourd. The seeds should be soaked in water for one day before sowing enhances germination. An average of 1.5-2.0 kg of seeds is required for one acre area. At present, the seedlings are raised in plug trays for transplanting. Foliar spraying of Ethrel @ 250 ppm at 2-4 leaf stage favours the production of female flowers. Generally, the seed yield will be 25 g/fruit during the summer season and 10 g/fruit during the rainy season. The certification procedures issued by seed certification department should be followed. The fully developed fruits are harvested at 65 days after anthesis and the seeds are separated by opening the pods. Fruits may be stored as such till next sowing. The dried fruits are cut for collection of seeds. These seeds are dried for one or two weeks in a cool, dry and dark place. The seeds can be viable up to four years.

  • Propagation Techniques in Dolichos Bean

  • Prabhu M, Dhandapani M, Anbukkarasi V, Pugalendhi L,

    OPEN ACCESS | Published on : 30-Jun-2024 | Pages : 0884-0886

    The Dolichos bean can be used as a vegetable and pulse. These beans are commercially propagated by seeds. For seed production, the field should be free from of volunteer plants. The off-types and diseased plants should be rogued out from the main field at all stages based on morphological features. Adequate amount of water should be provided during reproductive stage for getting good quality seeds. The isolation distance of 50 m and 25 m will be maintained for foundation and certified seed production respectively. Fully matured pods are collected and threshing is carried out by beating with wooden mallet. Then the seeds are cleaned by winnowing. Usually, the seeds are viable for 24 months under room temperature. The cloth bags are used for short term storage and thick polythene bags are used for long-term storage.

  • Production Technology of Tuberose

  • Geethalakshmi I, Aruna P, Prabhu M, Jegadeeswari R, Arulmozhiyan R,

    OPEN ACCESS | Published on : 30-Jun-2024 | Pages : 0884-0889

    Tuberose flowers are commonly used as a loose flower and extraction of perfumes. It is commercially propagated by bulbs. These bulbs should be treated with GA3 @ 200ppm for early flowering, high yield with good quality flowers. The well drained sandy loam soils with a soil pH of 6.5 - 7.5 is highly suitable for tuberose. The bulb size of 1.5-2.0 cm in diameter is ideal for planting with a spacing of 0.3m x 0.3m. Basal application of FYM @ 25 t, 200 kg N, 400 kg P2O5 and 200 kg K2O per hectare is suggested. Irrigation should be given at once in seven days during summer and once in 10 days during winter seasons. Harvesting of tuberose flowers commences from 80 to 100 days after planting and harvested from July onwards. The flower yield ranges between 15 to 20 t/ha in the first year, 20 and 25 t/ha in the second year and 7.5 to 10 t/ha in the third year.

  • Abiotic Stress in Vegetables

  • Madhusmita Dishri, Utpal Das, Poonguzhali S,

    OPEN ACCESS | Published on : 30-Jun-2024 | Pages : 0890-0894

    Vegetables are naturally very sensitive, they are impacted by a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. Abiotic stress is defined as any negative impact that non-living substances have on living organisms inside a certain ecosystem. The severe events of climate change, such as heat stress, water stress, drought, heavy rainfall, salinity, etc., have a significant impact on the productivity and production of vegetable crops. The numerous nutrients included in vegetables assist to reduce the risk of a number of ailments, including diabetes, blood pressure, cancer, and heart disease. Since most vegetables are over 90% water, they are extremely vulnerable to climate change. The quality and yields main of vegetables are directly lowered by abrupt changes in climatic conditions, such as temperature, which impacts all phases of plant development, pollination, flowering, and fruiting. When temperatures rise to such high levels, especially when there is wind or dryness, vegetable crops like tomatoes or beans may lose parts of their flowers, which will result in a poor fruit set. Elevated temperatures can disrupt the pollination process of sweet corn, leading to corn ears that are not fully filled. Cucurbits, the family that includes squash and pumpkins, usually grow largely male flowers under high temperatures, therefore few fruits are produced.

  • 3D Ocean Farming - A Key to Challenge Global Food Security and Environment Sustainability

  • Abhishek Chaudhary,

    OPEN ACCESS | Published on : 30-Jun-2024 | Pages : 0895-0898

    Seaweeds are the essential component of marine ecosystem which are rich source of protein and other nutrients along with its bioremediation activity to clean the polluted marine ecosystem. 3D Ocean farming is an Integrated Multi-Tropic Agriculture (IMTA) which seeks production of sea weeds, shellfish, mussels, clam, oysters, sea vegetables and so on. It provides maximum output with minimum investment and can be a life changing farming idea to marine farmers and fishermen to transform their income and life to a better and sustainable future. This regenerative farming can give abundant production with minimum investment and maintains clean marine ecosystem by absorbing the heavy metals, carbon, nitrogen leading to sustainable agriculture practices.

  • Ant-Plant Mutualism

  • Adarsha S.K, Sankara Rao K, Sankarganesh E,

    OPEN ACCESS | Published on : 30-Jun-2024 | Pages : 0899-0901

    Ant-plant mutualism represents a symbiotic relationship where both parties benefit, showcasing a remarkable example of ecological interdependence. Ants and Plants have mutualistic relations with each other. It may be facultative or obligate.  Ants are provided with food and shelter by plants, such as extrafloral nectar and food bodies. While ants offer protection against herbivores and pathogens. Some plants, known as myrmecophytes, have evolved specialized structures to house ants, enhancing the mutual benefits. The benefits to plants include reduced herbivory, improved nutrient acquisition, and enhanced seed dispersal, while ants gain consistent food supplies and nesting sites. Ongoing research aims to deepen understanding of the molecular mechanisms and broader ecological impacts of ant-plant interactions, with attention to how environmental changes may affect these relationships. Ant-plant mutualism exemplifies the complexity of ecological networks, emphasizing the need for biodiversity conservation to sustain these vital interactions.

  • Significance of Amino Acids as Plant Bio-Stimulant

  • Nizamul Haque Ansari

    OPEN ACCESS | Published on : 30-Jun-2024 | Pages : 0902-0908

    Bio-stimulants, also known as plant conditioners or bio-effectors, are chemicals, microorganism cultures, and material mixes that stimulate agricultural plant growth. These substances, which include biofertilizers and plant growth regulators, can be artificial or natural and are effective at low concentrations. They enhance plant growth, improve resilience to abiotic stress like drought, and reduce fertilizer needs, resulting in higher yields and quality products. Studies show bio-stimulants' efficacy in seedling development, stress-resistant growth, and saline environments. Key ingredients include hormones, humic acids, algal extracts, growth-promoting bacteria, and amino acids. Various researcher has used amino acids as bio-stimulants and found that these bio-stimulants can reduce the need of fertilizers and help in environment conservation. Present article discusses about the significance of amino acids as plant bio-stimulant.