Volume 2 Issue 3 (2021)


  • Mangroves: an Underestimated Ecosystem?

  • Shahana Begum, Shalini Pillai,

    OPEN ACCESS | Published on : 31-Mar-2021 | Pages : 0089-0093

    Mangrove is a type of tree / shrub / fern / palm, generally found in the estuarine margins or in the intertidal zones of coastal areas or wetlands, and are regularly inundated by tidal water. They are halophyte in nature and can tolerate salt content to a great extent. This ecosystem aids in sustaining the livelihood in the coastal areas by several means such as by providing food, fodder, fuel, timber, etc. Some of the mangrove species have medicinal properties and are used against many ailments. They also ensure water security by protecting intrusion of saltwater into aquifers or freshwater. Mangrove forest acts as a habitat for various organisms and hence conserves biodiversity. Their entangled root system acts as a filter and collects debris between them thereby preventing it from washing away into the water body. It removes toxic heavy metals from the water via phytoremediation and most importantly it sequesters carbon from the atmosphere leading to the reduction in global warming and ultimately climate change. Mangrove ecosystem acts as a shield against natural catastrophe such as tsunami, floods, storm and cyclone. Regardless of its several advantages, its indiscriminate use for various economic activities has jeopardized this ecosystem. Every year this ecosystem has been declining at a rate of 2 per cent. The realization of the problems arising from the lack of such ecosystem has led to the development of several strategies emphasizing on its preservation and restoration.

  • Bio-Fertilizers Improves Soil Health and Crop Productivity

  • Lalan Sharma, Sudhir Kumar Shukla, Vijai Prakash Jaiswal, Asha Gaur,

    OPEN ACCESS | Published on : 31-Mar-2021 | Pages : 0094-0097

    Soil health is a serious concern for sustainable crop production because of the magnitude of chemical fertilizers non-judiciously applied in agricultural crops. Besides this, the availability of organic soil carbon content is also decreasing very fast. For the management of soil organic carbon, the addition of agricultural waste and other organic material is an immediate requirement. For the management of chemical fertilizers, reduction in chemical fertilizers application can be done through the application of bio-fertilizers. Bio-fertilizers are live microbial formulations and have the potential to solubilise, mobilize and even fix plant nutrients for the benefits of crop plants. Besides this, bio-fertilizers are reported for increasing crop growth and yield. In India, a large number of bio-fertilizers are being produced at Govt. institutions/organization, state agricultural universities, NGOs and private agencies. Quality of bio-fertilizers should be procured, and applied in agricultural crops at a proper rate and method. In this article, we have here tried to provide basic information on bio-fertilizers and application in sugarcane crop.

  • Sulphur Nutrition for Sugarcane

  • Shanmuganathan M, Ravichandran V,

    OPEN ACCESS | Published on : 31-Mar-2021 | Pages : 0098-0100

    Sugarcane is a commercial crop grown for the production of sugar and other by products like baggase, molasses, filter cake etc. Being a C4 plant assimilates larger biomass and exhausts the large quantities of macro and micro nutrients from the soil. Hence, the balanced application of nutrients is essential for achieving the higher cane and sugar production for sustaining the soil fertility level. Sulphur deficiency is exhibited in sugarcane crops where ever the oil seed crops are grown in the previous season. The critical level of available sulphur is fixed as 20 ppm for sugarcane. Hence, sulphur application is needed to achieve higher productivity in sugarcane.

  • Citrus Genomes: Enigma Code Breaker

  • Jagannadham Prasanth Tej Kumar, Thirugnanavel Anbalagan, Anjitha George, Kiran Kumar K,

    OPEN ACCESS | Published on : 31-Mar-2021 | Pages : 0101-0103

    A genome is the complete set of instructions needed to build an organism and allow it to grow and develop. The genome sequence of any organism helps to understand its evolution and lays a foundation for the functional characterization means for understanding the genetic basis of differences between plants and other eukaryotes, and provides the foundation for detailed functional characterization of plant genes. The discovery of DNA as a genetic material has revolutionized the science and researchers striving to decode the genetic information. The arrival of next generation sequencing technologies has reduced the time and cost required to generate draft genomes. In citrus group, 9 species were sequenced, several assemblies were available in public domain and several were in pipeline. The analysis of genomes unraveled the origin, evolution of citrus species and identification genes involved in the characters typical to citrus like apomixis, vitamin C synthesis.

  • Multipurpose Trees: A Way to Boost Tree Farming in Semi-Arid Regions of India

  • Kala S, Reeja S, Smitha G Nair, Deepa T,

    OPEN ACCESS | Published on : 31-Mar-2021 | Pages : 0104-0108

    The fast-growing multi-purpose trees species are universally recognised as a natural gift and play imperative benefits to environment due to their exultant adaptation and survival capacity in the harsh weather. Water is a highly limiting factor in semi-arid regions. Trees are having special traits or mechanisms to adopt themselves in harsh climatic condition like deep tap rooting, leaf shedding in summer, leaf wax coating, sunken or closed stomata and short and small leaf size etc., in order to minimise the loss of water through transpiration loss. The identified / enlisted multipurpose tree species are the most commonly grown and preferred species for semi-arid agro- ecological regions viz., Neem - Azadirachta indica, Karanj (Pongammia pinnata), Desibabool (Acacia nilotica), Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo), Subabul (Leucaena leucochephala), Bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus), Anjan (Hardwickia binnata), Glyricidia (Gliricidia sepium), Senna siamea (Cassia siamea), Khejedi (Prosopis cineraria), Siris (Albizia lebbeck), Kachnaar (Bauhenia racemosa) White Babul (Acacia leucopholea). Few improved and easily adopted agroforestry practices have been identified and it will be useful to small and medium farmers such as silvipasture, alley cropping, wood lot and protein bank and bamboo plantation for livelihood generation and wind-breaks/shelter-belt plantation to protect crop and animals from heavy blowing dusty winds. Also multipurpose perennials shrubs provide green cover/forage during summer season when grasses are almost dried under semi-arid rainfed conditions for balanced utilization of resources to provide other ecosystem benefits too. Multiple trees are ideal trees for meeting multiple needs of the farmers/ landholders. So, integration of tree species is essential component to be incorporated in landuse farming systems for effective utilization of land on multiple ways.

  • A Study on Various Strategies to Improve Crop with a Reference to Haryana State

  • Virender singh, Vikash Pawariya,

    OPEN ACCESS | Published on : 31-Mar-2021 | Pages : 0109-0114

    With activities like "Make in Haryana" and "Happening Haryana", the territory of Haryana has intended to build up itself as a chief speculation, assembling and food handling centre. The motivation behind this paper is to dissect the horticultural patterns in Haryana in the developments of creation, gross and net region under creation, editing power, yield, degree of water system and surveying the spread of agrarian R&D and expansion administrations, credit creation and harvest protection in similarity with practical rural turn of events and homestead family government assistance. Our technique for examination will incorporate expanded information mining and breaking down the agrarian development patterns utilizing progressed measurable and business investigation instruments in Microsoft Excel. This paper additionally investigates expected open doors in direct showcasing, contract cultivating, market combination, food handling and bundling, development of warehousing and storerooms in similarity with rising speculation openings in these areas under the "Make in Haryana" activity powerful human endeavors in light of the fact that the locales vary regarding their requirements and asset gifts. Since there has been a developing agreement about the need of region level rural arranging, it would hold any importance with measure the degree of horticultural movement at locale level. An examination at the region level will be valuable to define region explicit horticultural arrangements. It is additionally enlightening to comprehend the progressions in trimming design throughout the long term. The reality of arising intense local irregular characteristics has not yet gotten the public consideration, it merits. The principle point of the examination is to pick up knowledge into the greatness of endeavors expected to accomplish adjusted farming development in Haryana.

  • Does Agriculture can be Carbon Neutral

  • Sunil Kumar, Mahendra Prasad, Sonu Kumar Mahawer, Prabhu Govindasamy, Srinivasan R,

    OPEN ACCESS | Published on : 31-Mar-2021 | Pages : 0115-0117

    Agriculture is a source and sink to green house gases (GHGs). Fuel, inorganic fertilizers, pesticides and intensive tillage that are used in agriculture emit GHGs that can result in climate change. It is a well-known fact that climate-smart farming will increase agricultural production by reducing carbon emissions. Some of measures for offsetting carbon emissions are: fossil-free farming, using renewable energy, preventing nutrient loss, improving carbon sequestration, and maintaining biodiversity.  Farmers can therefore advise to adopt these practices to protect the environment and render agriculture carbon neutral.

  • Fruit Cracking in Subtropical Fruits: Causes and Remedies

  • Rakesh Kumar Jat, Mukesh Kumar, Rathwa A. D, Mohan Lal Jat, Jitendra Singh Shivran,

    OPEN ACCESS | Published on : 31-Mar-2021 | Pages : 0118-0121

    Fruit cracking is a severe physiological condition that has a detrimental effect on fruit quality. Cracks on the fruit surface allow fungi to infect it, as well as promote rapid moisture loss and shriveling, lowering market quality and storage life. Fruit cracking happens when the plants have plenty of water after a prolonged drought, as well as when the temperature and humidity are high in the summer. In different fruit crops, different methods are used to regulate fruit cracking, such as drip irrigation, mulching, fertilizer management, resistant cultivars, bagging, different packaging materials, and timely harvesting, as well as spraying micronutrients and growth regulators.